The Problem: Hopefully everyone has used shampoo at one point in his or her life, and likely it is a product we all use regularly. The problem is that shampoos are packed full with all kinds of synthetic ingredients, many of which remain in the water even after it runs down the drain and through water processing plants. These chemicals can be harmful to individual human health and to the over-all environment. I don’t even need to mention shampoo bottles made out of plastic #5.
The Options: When I walk down any shampoo isle, I feel bombarded with all kinds of claims ranging from giving me blonde, straight hair to sexy bedhead in two steps. What I am on the lookout for, however, is not what a shampoo has, but what it doesn’t. Similar to hand dishwashing soaps, Triclosan is a dangerous chemical present in many shampoos. Shampoos also frequently contain Phthalates, a family of chemicals linked to reproductive problems in men and in wildlife.
My Decision: While there are still scientific studies searching for effects of our shampoos, I prefer to play it safe and go with organic shampoo. For now I am using Acure hair products, which are phthalate and Triclosan free. This shampoo even claims, “each product is…paraben free, gluten free, sulfate free, sodium chloride free, vegan, and cruelty free.” The one downside is the price, but in the long run, a few extra dollars is worth paying to play the largest part I can in protecting our water supply, overall environmental, and, in turn, human health.
The Problem: In learning about hand dishwashing soaps online and reviewing different products on GoodGuide.com, I found that the two biggest problems appear to be lack of transparency about ingredients and the presence of anti-bacterial ingredients like Triclosan, which can act as neurotoxins, are dangerous to the environment, and may contribute to antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.
The Options: I found relatively high-ranking products that disclose their ingredients and do not have Triclosan on GoodGuide.com made by Method, Seventh Generation, Bright Green, and Green Works.
My Decision: While there is some debate about how toxic Triclosan is, given the controversy and number of studies that raise questions about its safety, I would like to avoid it if I can. I also believe it is very important for companies to disclose what ingredients are in their products. So assuming they are available and not too much more expensive, I plan to only buy with full ingredient lists and no Triclosan in them.
When I first reviewed the different options in 2012, among brands that met these criteria, Seventh Generation had the highest overall score on GoodGuide and the most certifications, although it did not have EPA’s Design for the Environment certification, which has a very rigorous standard and process. I appreciated their engagement with the Responsible Palm Oil Roundtable though, and they are B-Corp certified, “cruelty free” and Leaping Bunny Certified. Method and Seventh Generation overall had the highest scores, and ultimately it came down to an additional factor that we focused on when we were in the store — the Seventh Generation was the only one that came in a manageable bulk size (50 fluid ounces) — all the rest were smaller products that require more packaging. The bottle is also made out of recycled material. So we decided to go with the Seventh Generation product, and it has been working pretty well.
The Issues: The production of chocolate raises several social and environmental concerns. In West Africa, where much of the world’s cocoa is cultivated, slave labor and child labor is well-documented and pervasive – the US State Department estimates that 100,000 children are involved in the trade, and 10,000 of them are victims of human trafficking (aka, slavery). The cultivation of “sun-grown” chocolate often results in the deforestation of rainforests, loss of habitat for wildlife, and the application of pesticides that can be harmful to both human health and the environment. On the other hand, chocolate that is shade-grown beneath the canopies of rainforests can have a positive effect on conservation, as it encourages forest protection and provides a sustainable source of income for communities living in or near these forests.
The Options: Numerous campaigns have been initiated to deal with these problems, with the slave and child labor issue gaining the most attention. In 2001, as an alternative to legislation being considered, the largest chocolate companies signed a voluntary protocol aimed at eliminating child labor by 2005. This and a later deadline in 2008 were missed, and the problem continues to be an issue in West Africa, despite the voluntary efforts by the companies. A recent campaign against Hershey’s forced them to make several changes to their strategy, including providing more funding to their efforts to reduce child labor and committing to source 100% of its chocolate for its Bliss chocolate bar from farms certified by the Rainforest Alliance. This new commitment helps Hershey’s catch up with some of the other biggest chocolate companies – Nestle and Mars – but still leaves much to be desired by activist groups. Much less attention has been drawn to the environmental effects of chocolate, but several certifications, including USDA Organic, Fair Trade and Rainforest Alliance, generally claim to be shade-grown.
My Decision: Given the scope and severity of the environmental and social concerns associated with chocolate cultivation, I have decided to only purchase chocolate products that have been certified by independent organizations as socially and environmentally responsible (e.g. USDA Organic, Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance). While no certification is perfect, these certifications increase the probability that the chocolate I consume is shade-grown, organic and not produced by slave or child labor. When I am offered products that have chocolate in them, I will ask the providers of the product where it has come from and whether it has been certified. If it has not been or they do not know, I will try to avoid consuming it, and will inform the provider about the environmental and social problems associated with uncertified chocolate. Given how much I love chocolate and how difficult it is to refuse it when it easily accessible, my immediate goal is to increase my consumption of certified chocolate to 50% of my overall chocolate intake over the next year, and to 90% in the next two years.
The World Vision, NWF, and Rainforest Alliance sites below provide a list of companies they recommend as producers of responsible chocolate products.
National Wildlife Federation: The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) has a page encouraging people to “purchase sustainable chocolate” to “help migratory birds.” It emphasizes the importance of organic, shade-grown cocoa, and lists six companies you can buy it from – Endangered Species Chocolate, Ithaca Fine Chocolate, Equal Exchange, Shaman Chocolates, Divine Chocolates, and Cocoa Camino (http://www.nwf.org/Global-Warming/Personal-Solutions/Green-Purchasing/Chocolate.aspx).
The International Cocoa Initiative: The International Cocoa Initiative was founded as part of the voluntary agreement in 2001, and is supported by all the major cocoa companies as well as several NGOs. As its website states, “ICI is an independent non-profit foundation aiming to address the Worst Forms of Child Labour and Forced Adult Labour on cocoa farms.” http://www.cocoainitiative.org/en/about-us